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Secondary B cell receptor diversification is necessary for T cell mediated neuro-inflammation during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Galicia, G;Boulianne, B;Pikor, N;Martin, A;Gommerman, JL;

Clinical studies of B cell depletion in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have revealed that B Lymphocytes are involved in the neuro-inflammatory process, yet it remains unclear how B cells can exert pro- and anti-inflammatory functions during MS. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of MS whereby myelin-specific T cells become activated and subsequently migrate to the Central Nervous System (CNS) where they perform pro-inflammatory functions such as cytokine secretion. Typically EAE is induced by immunization of mice of a susceptible genetic background with peptide antigen emulsified in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant. However, novel roles for B-lymphocytes in EAE may also be explored by immunization with full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) that contains the B cell conformational epitope. Here we show that full length MOG immunization promotes a chronic disease in mice that depends on antigen-driven secondary diversification of the B cell receptor.