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Serotonin-evoked cytosolic Ca2+ release and opioid receptor expression are upregulated in articular cartilage chondrocytes from osteoarthritic joints in horses

Skildebrand, E;Ley, C;Bjrklund, U;Lindahl, A;Hansson, E;

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to induce an acute inflammatory response in cultured equine chondrocytes harvested from healthy joints (HC) and osteoarthritic joints (OAC), the latter representing acute exacerbation of a chronic inflammatory state. Intracellular Ca2+ release was determined after exposure to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), glutamate or ATP. Protein expression levels of F- and G-actin, representing actin rearrangement, and opioid receptors were investigated. Glutamate concentrations in culture media were measured. Cartilage was immunohistochemically stained for (MOR), (KOR), and (DOR) opioid receptors.