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Sex Effect on Cardiac Damage in Mice With Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Wu, R;Su, Y;Yuan, Q;Li, L;Wuri, J;Liu, X;Yan, T;

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Recent clinical study suggested that MS patient exhibited acute heart failure. Further, 12-lead electrocardiographic study showed a longer QTc interval in both MS patient and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) Lewis rat. However, there is limited study regarding the effect of sex on cardiac injury in EAE. To our knowledge, sex effect on cardiac damage in mice with EAE has not yet been published. Herein, we examined the role of the immune system in mediating cardiac dysfunction after EAE in female and male mice. Neurological function was subsequently evaluated and cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography at multiple time points after EAE. EAE mice exhibited severe neurological deficit and significant cardiac dysfunction, including decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) at 1 and 2 months after EAE induction. Meanwhile male EAE presented increased expression of the oxidative stress (e.g., nicotinamaide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2; NOX-2) in heart, as well as cardiac hypertrophy, increased left ventricle (LV) mass and more severe cardiac fibrosis compared with male control mice. In addition, male EAE mice showed significantly increased cardiac canonical inflammatory mediator (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MCP-1, transforming growth factor-β; TGF-β and toll-like receptor 2; TLR-2) compared with female EAE mice at 2 months after EAE induction. In conclusion, EAE increases inflammatory factor expression and aggravates cardiac dysfunction in male mice compared with female mice, which may contribute to different cardiac outcome in EAE mice.