Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) might participate in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). However, the exact mechanism of polyp formation in CRSwNP remains unclear. Since the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is closely associated with chronic inflammation, we investigated the association between ER stress and SEB in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP.,Twenty-three CRSwNP patients with eosinophilic polyps (EP) or non-eosinophilic polyps (NEP) and 10 healthy subjects who were undergoing septoplasty were enrolled in this study. ER stress response was investigated using immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting.,We show in this study that there are significantly more SEB-positive cells and higher production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial layer of EP than NEP or control tissue. Both SEB and protein A were detected strongly in tissues from patients with CRSwNP. We observed SEB induced the ER stress response in RPMI 2650 cells. GRP78 elevation by SEB was reduced by ROS scavenger pretreatment. In addition, the induction of GRP78 and p47 phox was increased significantly in EP compared with NEP or control mucosa.,SEB may induce ER stress via ROS production in CRSwNP. Therefore, we suggest that SEB-induced ER stress may play important roles in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.