JNK pathway-associated phosphatase (JKAP, also known as DUSP22 or JSP-1) is a JNK activator. The in vivo role of JKAP in immune regulation remains unclear. Here we report that JKAP directly inactivates Lck by dephosphorylating tyrosine-394 residue during T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling. JKAP-knockout T cells display enhanced cell proliferation and cytokine production. JKAP-knockout mice show enhanced T-cell-mediated immune responses and are more susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In addition, the recipient mice that are adoptively transferred with JKAP-knockout T cells show exacerbated EAE symptoms. Aged JKAP-knockout mice spontaneously develop inflammation and autoimmunity. Thus, our results indicate that JKAP is an important phosphatase that inactivates Lck in the TCR signalling turn-off stage, leading to suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity and autoimmunity.