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The PYRIN domain-only protein POP3 inhibits ALR inflammasomes and regulates responses to infection with DNA viruses.

Khare, S;Ratsimandresy, RA;de Almeida, L;Cuda, CM;Rellick, SL;Misharin, AV;Wallin, MC;Gangopadhyay, A;Forte, E;Gottwein, E;Perlman, H;Reed, JC;Greaves, DR;Dorfleutner, A;Stehlik, C;

The innate immune system responds to infection and tissue damage by activating cytosolic sensory complexes called 'inflammasomes'. Cytosolic DNA is sensed by AIM2-like receptors (ALRs) during bacterial and viral infections and in autoimmune diseases. Subsequently, recruitment of the inflammasome adaptor ASC links ALRs to the activation of caspase-1. A controlled immune response is crucial for maintaining homeostasis, but the regulation of ALR inflammasomes is poorly understood. Here we identified the PYRIN domain (PYD)-only protein POP3, which competes with ASC for recruitment to ALRs, as an inhibitor of DNA virus-induced activation of ALR inflammasomes in vivo. Data obtained with a mouse model with macrophage-specific POP3 expression emphasize the importance of the regulation of ALR inflammasomes in monocytes and macrophages.