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The Use of MiRNA Antagonists in the Alleviation of Inflammatory Disorders

Garo, LP;Murugaiyan, G;

Toll-like receptors (TLR), a family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) stimulated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), generate antigen-triggered innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent studies have indicated that several small, regulatory RNAs, called microRNAs (miRNas), are induced by TLR activation in immune cells and that many microRNAs can control the inflammatory process and response to infection by positively or negatively regulating TLR signaling. Among these miRNAs, aberrant microRNA-155 (miR-155) has been implicated in diverse immune processes including the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases and cancer. Here, we discuss the role of miR-155 in TLR-mediated and TLR-related immune system regulation. Furthermore, we present our current knowledge of the design, in vivo delivery strategies, and therapeutic efficacy of miR-155 inhibitors in various inflammatory disorders and cancer, including a protocol on the use of miRNA-155 inhibitors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).