Vander Lugt, B;Khan, AA;Hackney, JA;Agrawal, S;Lesch, J;Zhou, M;Lee, WP;Park, S;Xu, M;DeVoss, J;Spooner, CJ;Chalouni, C;Delamarre, L;Mellman, I;Singh, H;
CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs) seem to be specialized for presenting antigens via major histocompatibility (MHC) class II complexes to stimulate helper T cells, but the genetic and regulatory basis for this is not established. Conditional deletion of Irf4 resulted in loss of CD11b(+) DCs, impaired formation of peptide-MHC class II complexes and defective priming of helper T cells but not of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) analyses delineated an IRF4-dependent regulatory module that programs enhanced MHC class II antigen presentation. Expression of the transcription factor IRF4 but not of IRF8 restored the ability of IRF4-deficient DCs to efficiently process and present antigen to MHC class II-restricted T cells and promote helper T cell responses. We propose that the evolutionary divergence of IRF4 and IRF8 facilitated the specialization of DC subsets for distinct modes of antigen presentation and priming of helper T cell versus CTL responses.