4724 total record number 96 records this year

Transcriptomic characterization of the human segmental endotoxin challenge model

Gress, C;Litzenburger, T;Schmid, R;Xiao, K;Heissig, F;Muller, M;Gupta, A;Hohlfeld, JM;

Segmental instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by bronchoscopy safely induces transient airway inflammation in human lungs. This model enables investigation of pulmonary inflammatory mechanisms as well as pharmacodynamic analysis of investigational drugs. The aim of this work was to describe the transcriptomic profile of human segmental LPS challenge with contextualization to major respiratory diseases. Pre-challenge bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and biopsies were sampled from 28 smoking, healthy participants, followed by segmental instillation of LPS and saline as control. Twenty-four hours post instillation, BAL and biopsies were collected from challenged lung segments. Total RNA of cells from BAL and biopsy samples were sequenced and analysed for differentially expressed genes (DEGs). After challenge with LPS compared with saline, 6316 DEGs were upregulated and 241 were downregulated in BAL, but only one DEG was downregulated in biopsy samples. Upregulated DEGs in BAL were related to molecular functions such as “Inflammatory response” or “chemokine receptor activity”, and upregulated pro-inflammatory pathways such as “Wnt-“/”Ras-“/”JAK-STAT” “-signaling pathway”. Furthermore, the segmental LPS challenge model resembled aspects of the five most prevalent respiratory diseases chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis and lung cancer and featured similarities with acute exacerbations in COPD (AECOPD) and community-acquired pneumonia. Overall, our study provides extensive information about the transcriptomic profile from BAL cells and mucosal biopsies following LPS challenge in healthy smokers. It expands the knowledge about the LPS challenge model providing potential overlap with respiratory diseases in general and infection-triggered respiratory insults such as AECOPD in particular.