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Transcutaneous immunization with a Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa synthetic hexasaccharide conjugate following oral whole-cell cholera vaccination boosts vibriocidal responses and induces protective immunity in mice

Tarique, AA;Kalsy, A;Arifuzzaman, M;Rollins, SM;Charles, RC;Leung, DT;Harris, JB;Larocque, RC;Sheikh, A;Bhuiyan, MS;Saksena, R;Clements, JD;Calderwood, SB;Qadri, F;Kovc, P;Ryan, ET;

A shortcoming of currently available oral cholera vaccines is their induction of relatively short-term protection against cholera compared to that afforded by wild-type disease. We were interested in whether transcutaneous or subcutaneous boosting using a neoglycoconjugate vaccine made from a synthetic terminal hexasaccharide of the O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 (Ogawa) coupled to bovine serum albumin as a carrier (CHO-BSA) could boost lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific and vibriocidal antibody responses and result in protective immunity following oral priming immunization with whole-cell cholera vaccine. We found that boosting with CHO-BSA with immunoadjuvantative cholera toxin (CT) or Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) following oral priming with attenuated V. cholerae O1 vaccine strain O395-NT resulted in significant increases in serum anti-V. cholerae LPS IgG, IgM, and IgA (P < 0.01) responses as well as in anti-Ogawa (P < 0.01) and anti-Inaba (P < 0.05) vibriocidal titers in mice. The LPS-specific IgA responses in stool were induced by transcutaneous (P < 0.01) but not subcutaneous immunization. Immune responses following use of CT or LT as an adjuvant were comparable. In a neonatal mouse challenge assay, immune serum from boosted mice was associated with 79% protective efficacy against death. Our results suggest that transcutaneous and subcutaneous boosting with a neoglycoconjugate following oral cholera vaccination may be an effective strategy to prolong protective immune responses against V. cholerae.