Journal Of Neuroendocrinology
Recent studies suggest an important role for transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels in neural and neuroendocrine regulation. The TRPV subfamily consists of six members: TRPV1-6. While the neuroanatomical and functional correlates of TRPV1-4 have been studied extensively, relevant information about TRPV5 and TRPV6, which are highly selective for Ca(2+) , is limited. We detected TRPV5 mRNA expression in the olfactory bulb, cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, midbrain, brainstem and cerebellum of the rat. TRPV5-immunoreactive neurones were conspicuously seen in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON), accessory neurosecretory (ANS), supraoptic nucleus, retrochiasmatic part (SOR), arcuate (ARC) and medial tuberal nuclei, hippocampus, midbrain, brainstem and cerebellum. Glial cells also showed TRPV5-immunoreactivity. To test the neuroendocrine relevance of TRPV5, we focused on vasopressin, oxytocin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) as representative candidate markers with which TRPV5 may co-exist. In the hypothalamic neurones, co-expression of TRPV5 was observed with vasopressin (PVN: 50.733.82%; SON: 75.912.34%; ANS: 49.124.28%; SOR: 100%) and oxytocin (PVN: 6.881.21; SON: 63.345.69%; ANS: 20.44.14; SOR: 86.51.74%). While ARC neurones express oestrogen receptors, 17-oestradiol regulates TRPV5, as well as CART neurones and astrocytes, in the ARC. Furthermore, ARC CART neurones are known to project to the preoptic area, and innervate and regulate GnRH neurones. Using double-immunofluorescence, glial fibrillary acidic protein-labelled astrocytes and the majority of CART neurones in the ARC showed TRPV5-immunoreactivity. Following iontophoresis of retrograde neuronal tracer, cholera toxin (CtB) into the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and median preoptic nucleus, retrograde accumulation of CtB was observed in most TRPV5-equipped ARC CART neurones. Next, we determined the response of TRPV5-elements in the ARC during the oestrous cycle. Compared to pro-oestrus, a significant increase (P<.001) in the percentage of TRPV5-expressing CART neurones was observed during oestrus, metoestrus, and dioestrus. TRPV5-immunoreactivity in the astrocytes, however, showed a significant increase during metoestrus and dioestrus. We suggest that the TRPV5 ion channel may serve as an important regulator of neural and neuroendocrine pathways in the brain.