Periostin has dual roles as a multifunctional cytokine and an extracellular matrix protein that binds to several integrins on a variety of cells. This study evaluated whether the expression and cellular localization of periostin changes in the spinal cord of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis. Western blot analysis revealed that periostin was significantly upregulated in the spinal cord of EAE-induced mice in the effector stage, and did not significantly decrease in the recovery stage of EAE, compared with normal control. Periostin was constitutively detected in the neurons, ependymal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and astrocytes of normal mice. In the paralytic stage of EAE, periostin immunoreactivity was detected in some macrophages in the subarachnoid space (SAS), as well as in some microglial cells; in addition, periostin immunoreactivity was enhanced in astrocytes and vascular endothelial cells in EAE lesions. Collectively, these results suggest that periostin, either from monocyte-derived macrophages in SAS or glial cells in the parenchyma, partly facilitates the migration of inflammatory cells in the effector stage of EAE; moreover, periostin in the recovery stage of EAE appears to be involved in the plasticity of damaged central nervous system tissues. Copyright 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.