List Labs currently has a GMP compliant version of HPT™ Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O113 in stock. What this means for you:

GMP LPS product in stock at List Labs

Get to Phase one quickly with available GMP products

Time is money. The more time spent waiting for your materials to be manufactured is time that you are not conducting your clinical trials. Contracting a manufacturer to produce GMP products can take a year or more for manufacture and release, but with a GMP compliant product in stock, you can purchase what you need when you are ready.

Help your budget with available GMP products 

There are so many costs associated with research studies and clinical trials, who wouldn’t want to save a little money on their project? The expense of custom manufacturing can be steep – purchasing available GMP compliant products from List Labs can help alleviate some of those costs. Lipopolysaccharide is broadly used in many types of clinical trials such as in the study of tumor Ag-loaded IL-12 secreting semi-mature DC for the treatment of pediatric cancer.1

Lipopolysaccharide currently in use in clinical trials worldwide

List Labs’ GMP compliant version of HPT™ Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O113 has already been used by organizations around the world in clinical trials. The quality of this product is proven by the successful use in Phases one through three in past or ongoing clinical trials. This unique difference sets our GMP product apart from the competition and saves you the risk of an unknown product.

Contact us today to get your GMP LPS while there’s still product in stock!

See how List Labs’ products have been used in research projects on our citations page.


  1. Dohnal AM, Witt V, Hügel H, Holter W, Gadner H, Felzmann T. Phase I study of tumor Ag-loaded IL-12 secreting semi-mature DC for the treatment of pediatric cancer. Cytotherapy. 2007;9(8):755-70. Epub 2007 Oct 4. PMID: 17917887

By: Rachel Berlin, Marketing Manager

Microbiome Research ReagentsMicrobiome research is uncovering the enormous potential for developing drugs, such a live biotherapeutic products, from the microbiome.  This burgeoning field is the future of medicine.

List Labs is excited and proud to support microbiome research by providing reagents to scientists studying the human microbiome. Below is a list of microbiome research studies that have used List Labs’ research reagents such as Athrax, Pertussis, Cholera and Difficile Toxins.

Pertussis Toxins Used in Microbiome Research:

Difficile Toxins Used in Microbiome Research: 

Cholera Toxins Used in Microbiome Research: 

Anthrax Products


In addition to producing products for microbiome research, List Labs also provides contract GMP manufacturing of live biotherapeutic products for phases 1-3 of clinical trials. For more information on microbiome and live biotherapeutics- check out this blog post or watch our informative video. See how scientists have used our products in their research on our citations page.

Contact us to discuss your next project!

By: Rachel Berlin, Marketing Manager


List Labs is proud to be exhibiting at the Microbiome Drug Develoment Summit 2018 in Boston, MA. The conference will be held at the Boston Seaport World Trade Center from June 20-22. This conference provides access to the latest preclinical, clinical and commercial case studies from the brightest minds in biopharma and academia to turn microbiome discoveries into patient therapies.

Come by our booth and ask us how we can help you develop materials for your clinical trials! Learn about List Labs’ services including Live Biotherapeutic Products. Check out how others have used our products in their microbiome research on our citations page.

Watch our informative video about our Microbiome and Live Biotherapeutic services.

Contact us to schedule a meeting with us at the show to discuss your next project!

By: Rachel Berlin, Marketing Manager

1978 was a great year for scientific advancement – NASA hired the first women astronauts, the first test tube baby was born and List Labs was founded. Linda Shoer, our founder, saw an opportunity when she realized there was a need for a commercial supplier of Cholera Toxin for studies in signal transduction and neuronal track tracing. On May 18, 1978, Linda started something more than a company, she started a family- the List Labs family.

List Labs 40th Anniversary

List Labs’ catalog has grown to include over 100 products, which have been used in thousands of scientific research projects over the years. More recently we have added services to our offerings; this trend started in the early 90’s when List Labs manufactured Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Allergan. Since then our services have expanded to include cGMP grade manufacturing, live biotherapeutics products, scalable process development for fermentation, purification and lyophilization, enhanced QC testing and more! We’ve also added to our team of experts with employees in Microbiology, Production, QC, QA, Sales and Marketing, Shipping, Administration and Finance.

List Labs carries on the values instilled by Linda Shoer and continues to grow our team, our capabilities and experience. We are excited to see what the next 40 years bring!

By: Stacy Burns-Guydish, Ph.D., Senior Director, Production

The terms “Microbiome” and “live biotherapeutics” have been repeated frequently in the last few years in scientific circles. Researchers are understanding more and more about the various microbiomes in the human body and how they affect our overall health. From this research, microorganisms have been identified that may be beneficial to our health and could be used as a therapeutic, otherwise known as a live biotherapeutic products. This article explains an overview of some microbiome and live biotherapeutics basics.

What is Microbiome? 

The human microbiome is the collection of trillions of microbes living in and on the human body. Scientists believe that it plays a role in many basic life processes and are important to our health.  Perturbation of the microbiome has been associated with a growing number of diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, asthma, autism, and cancer.

What are some different types of human microbiomes? 

Microbiomes are found, for example, in our gut, skin, vagina, and mouth.  Each of these sites have a different consortia of microorganisms.  Beneficial microorganisms have been identified in each of these niches.  Researchers are studying the various human microbiomes to better understand their importance in health and disease.

What is a Live Biotherapeutic Product (LBP)? 

A live biotherapeutic product contains a live microorganism that is used for the prevention, treatment, or cure of a disease or condition. As the characterization of the human microbiome and its link to human health has become better understood, microorganisms have been identified which may have a health benefit.  The use of these microorganisms as a live biotherapeutic product in clinical application shows great promise.  Several clinical trials are underway to evaluate their potential as a therapeutic.

What equipment and facilities are necessary for the production of a Live Biotherapeutic Products?

Many of the microorganisms identified for the manufacture of live biotherapeutic products are obligate or strict anaerobes and spore forming organisms.  These type of organisms present unique challenges to the emerging microbiome therapeutic space.  In particular, many of the microorganisms are anaerobes which cannot be exposed to air and thus expertise is required in handling and cultivating the organism.  Facilities and equipment important for the cGMP manufacturing of these organisms include:

List Labs is your partner for Live Biotherapeutic Products

List Labs has manufactured several live biotherapeutic products for phase clinical trials. With 40 years of experience, List Labs is distinctly qualified to help you with your next microbiome project and affords the flexibility required to achieve the strictest timelines and goals. We understand that each project is unique and we draw from our vast experience to deliver you a custom solution that meets your needs. Contact us today to find out how we can help you!


By: Rachel Berlin, Marketing Manager

2018 Translational Micriobiome Conference

List Labs is proud to be exhibiting at the 4th Annual Translational Microbiome Conference April 18-20 at the Boston Marriott Long Wharf.

List Labs Microbiome and Live BiotherapeuticsList Labs has extensive experience with microbiome and more specifically live biotherapeutic projects including vaginal, gut, skin and the central nervous system indication and tumor treatment – many of which have completed Phase I and Phase II trials. Stop by our booth and find out how we can help you with your next microbiome project. Learn about how scientists have used List Labs’ products for their microbiome research on our citations page.

Interested in scheduling a meeting with us during the conference? Contact us!

List Labs Contract GMP ManufacturingBy: Rachel Berlin, Marketing Manager

List Labs provides expert GMP contract manufacturing services to aid you in developing product for your clinical trial. The List Labs difference is that we manufacture reagent grade biological toxins regularly for resale, which means that not only do we have current, state-of-the art facilities and equipment, but we also have the experience and expertise to provide our customers with the highest quality products available. We even have a GMP LPS product currently in stock. Here are five reasons List Labs can make a critical difference in your success as a GMP manufacturing partner.

  1. Product Manufacturing Experience

List Labs has nearly 40 years of experience cultivating anaerobic and aerobic organisms. Because we manufacture our own products, we are up to date with the most current regulations and best practices for the highest quality of product manufacturing. We are used to cultivating hard to grow organisms and thrive on the challenge.

  1. Biological Toxins Expertise

Our team of scientists, many with PHDs, have the expertise for manufacturing obligate anaerobes, spore forming organisms as well as aerobes. The majority of List Labs’ scientific management team has been here for over 20 years and has vast experience manufacturing biological toxins for research. As experts in their field, our scientists utilize their expertise to produce the highest quality research reagents on the market.

  1. Quality Research Reagents

List Labs produces only the highest quality products for our customers to conduct their research. We are known for our quality products and attention to detail throughout the industry. Over the past 40 years in business, List Labs has honed our processes and facilities to produce only the highest quality research reagents and GMP compliant products.

  1. Facilities Designed for GMP

Our state-of-the-art facility was designed with GMP work in mind and is constantly enhanced with new equipment and more efficient processes. Our lab provides containment for BL2 and BL3 organisms and spores, as well as segregation of projects. Contact us to come visit us and tour our facility.

  1. GMP Capabilities

List Labs’ contract research & manufacturing capabilities include analytics, process development, media optimization, downstream and upstream processing and bulk and final product lyophilization. Most of our cultivation and harvesting operations are in full closed systems. We are also capable of working with spore formers, which many organizations are unable to work with due to the difficult nature of these strains and regulatory compliance. List Labs is one of only about 16 private companies in the US registered with the Federal Select Agent Program.

When choosing your GMP partner – make sure it’s someone you can trust. Consider List Labs for your next GMP project.

Contact us today! 

By: Md. Elias, Ph.D, Senior Scientist

What are Endotoxins?

Endotoxins (aka lipopolysaccharide, LPS or lipoglycan) are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria consisting of a lipid moiety and a polysaccharide moiety, the latter is composed of an inner core, outer core and O-antigen joined by covalent bonds1. In animals the lipid part of endotoxin (known as lipid A) often elicits strong immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 complex (TLR4/MD2/CD14) on the surface of immune cells2. Uncontrolled activation of such immune responses is often associated with production of inflammatory mediators. This may lead to capillary leak syndrome, which causes damage and dilation of the endothelial layer of blood vessels, a decrease in cardiac function and an increase in body temperature (fever); commonly referred to as fatal septic shock1,2.


Why is endotoxin contamination common in labs?

Since bacteria are widely present in nature, coexisting with plants and animals, endotoxins are ubiquitous. Endotoxins are naturally released from dead bacteria or as vesicles/blebs as part of the normal bacterial life cycle3. One of the critical properties of endotoxin is its high heat stability; it is found to be very difficult to deactivate/destroy using normal sterilizing conditions. In fact, steam sterilization, while eliminating live microbes, inadvertently increases the endotoxin level on glassware4. Biochemically, endotoxins are hydrophobic in nature and they have a tendency to stick to other hydrophobic materials such as common plastic lab wares. As a result of these properties, endotoxin contamination is common in laboratory procedures. US and European Pharmacopeia guidelines state that complete destruction of endotoxins requires 30 minutes of dry sterilization at 250℃5.


What are the FDA limits on endotoxin concentration?

Humans are found to be much more sensitive to endotoxins than the other animals. While a dose of 1 µg of endotoxins per Kg body weight induces septic shock in humans, mice can tolerate a thousand times higher dose. Since bacterial endotoxins are the most prevalent pyrogenic contaminants, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set limits on the concentration of endotoxin for human and veterinary parenteral drugs and medical devices. Endotoxin levels are measured as EU/ml where EU stands for endotoxin units. One EU equals approximately 0.1 to 0.2 ng endotoxin/ml of solution, depending on the reference standard used; this is the amount of endotoxin present in 105 to 1010 bacteria. FDA guidelines state that endotoxins unit, rather than weight should be used for testing comparisons because the potency of an endotoxin for causing pyrogenic effects depends on a variety of factors: polysaccharide chain length, aggregation, solubility in biological fluids, bacterial source, associated substances, etc. Current USP endotoxin limits in drugs for parenteral administration is 5 EU/kg of body weight per hour and for intrathecal it is 0.2 EU/kg. Endotoxin limits for medical devices is 0.5 EU/ml or 20 EU/device and for cerebrospinal fluid contacted devices it is 0.06 EU/ml or 2.15 EU/device6-9.


What is the rabbit pyrogen test?

The rabbit pyrogen test, which was introduced during 1940’s, was very successful in screening water and solutions used to validate parenteral drugs. However, this test is expensive, time consuming and not very quantitative. In the 1970’s an in-vitro assay method was developed based on the observation that horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) amebocyte lysate would clot in the presence of a very low level of endotoxins. This is known as Limulus Amebocyte Lysate or LAL assay. The LAL assay was approved by the FDA during 1970’s to measure the LPS in parenteral drugs, devices and products that come in contact with the blood8. There are at least three forms of the LAL assay, each having different sensitivities: 1) LAL gel clot assay, 2) LAL kinetic turbidimetric assay, and 3) LAL chromogenic assay. The former one can detect endotoxins down to 0.03 EU/ml while the later two can detect endotoxin down to 0.01 EU/ml7,8.


What is Low Endotoxin/Lipopolysaccharide recovery (LER/LLR)?

Although LAL is a powerful assay to detect the presence of endotoxin at very low levels, concerns have grown in the recent past when measurable endotoxin concentration was found in decline over time (such as during storage) in products or in-process materials despite the fact that the samples may maintain pyrogenicity in the USP pyrogen test. This phenomenon is termed as low endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide recovery or LER/LLR. It was revealed that LER/LLR phenomenon can occur from masking of endotoxins by pharmaceutical excipients such as widely used polysorbate and citrate or by added/contaminated proteins8,10,11.

As LER has been observed in a range of different sample matrices, the specific mechanism of LER has not been explained; although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. Chen and Vinther suggested that a chelating agent and polysorbate may mask the endotoxins and form the LER/LLR complex that inhibits endotoxin binding to its receptor, Factor C, needed for LAL reaction12. However, results of other studies do not support any specific mechanism. In one study, at low concentration of surfactant (0.0001% v/v polysorbate 20), LAL activity is enhanced to approximately 180%. At increasing concentration of surfactant, the LAL activity went down and reduced to almost zero at about 0.0025% v/v polysorbate 20. Other studies suggest that there are interplays in between endotoxins and the formulation in terms of aggregation, solubilization and masking. Time and temperature are also reported to have effects on LER. The LER phenomenon was reported to occur more rapidly at room temperature than at 2-8℃, and a seven day incubation is sufficient to determine whether a drug exhibits LER or not. LER is also reported when organic compounds such as citrate, acetate and MES buffers including the benzamidine (protease inhibitor) or EDTA or dimethyl sulfoxide was present as excipient in the product12,13,17.


What are the current FDA recommendations and guidelines for Low Endotoxin/Lipopolysaccharide recovery?

As the LER/LLR phenomenon in pharmaceutical formulations became more evident from a large number of studies, the FDA became concerned about LER/LLR in drugs and medical devices, and came up with new USP guidelines albeit with old guidelines in place. The USP guidelines recommend that drug producers should perform hold time studies to detect LER/LLR for all new drugs. The hold time studies should be done by adding known quantity of endotoxins to undiluted product and then measure the concentration of detectable endotoxin over time under appropriate storage conditions13. A decline in endotoxin concentration is indicative of LER. In addition to the hold time studies, the USP is proposing a new Reference Standard (RS), Naturally Occurring Endotoxin (NOE) from a well characterized as Gram negative bacteria. Reasons to use NOE as an RS are described in details in a recent review written by Dr. Radhakrishna S. Tirumalai, who is a Principal Scientific Liaison in the Science Division, USP14. The reasons to use NOE in future for LPS quantification are very thoughtful: First, natural endotoxins are vesicles or ‘blebs’ of the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria. Second, cell wall fragments that are generated from naturally dead bacteria are real-life contaminants that might be present in pharmaceutical raw materials, water systems, in process samples and final drug products. Third, chemically extracted LPS which is often called ‘endotoxin’ does not exist in nature and it is biochemically dissimilar to the native endotoxin. Fourth, extracted LPS is stripped off from cell walls, will be absorbed to surfaces, and will form micelles and other aggregates in solution. Fifth, different product formulations and factors such as temperature, pH, salt, detergents, chelating agents also have effects on aggregation. Clearly, extracted LPS may be an inappropriate choice as a RS as it is chemically, biologically, and structurally different from natural gram negative bacterial cell wall fragments. The new USP guidelines also included a recommendation for bacterial strains, along with methodology for preparation, storage and documentation of ‘NOE’ that mimics the ‘real world’ endotoxin contamination14.


What are strategies to overcome low endotoxin/low lipopolysaccharide recovery?

A number of strategies for overcoming LER/LLR have been suggested. Sample dilution to 1/1000 showed significant improvement in the recovery of added endotoxin to overcome LER/LLR in endotoxin assay15. Addition of magnesium sulfate in two antibodies formulated with polysorbate 80, citrate or sodium phosphate was shown to mitigate LER/LLR in an endotoxin assay15,16. A freeze thaw regime was reported to mitigate LER/LLR in one study. Other studies have shown that protease treatment to unmask endotoxin worked to mitigate LER in endotoxin assays16,17. Given the different interactions with different products and excipients, it is conceivable that one specific strategy will not work for all and strategies need to be developed for each product16-18.



Since endotoxins are abundant, highly heat stable and difficult to remove, two general strategies are recommended for addressing and mitigating the LER/LLR phenomenon. The first strategy would be to minimize endotoxin contamination at all levels i.e. in the materials that go into a product, in all the process involved in its manufacture, prevention of bio-burden in manufacturing process and ensuring endotoxin removal at relevant process steps. Second, develop strategies to test for LER and develop methods to overcome LER/LLR.

List Labs is one of the leading manufacturers of high quality endotoxins. Our lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and their derivatives (Products#400, #401, #421, #423, #433, #434) are purified from various bacterial sources with proprietary technology. GMP grade endotoxins are available by custom order. These endotoxins are widely used in the field of immunobiology as immune stimulators/modulators in various cell culture work and as adjuvants. In cell culture studies, endotoxin free media and reagents are considered a routine practice to use because endotoxins have been shown to affect/interfere with cell growth and function, and are known to be the source of significant variability. Each of our toxin products is carefully tested by our QC department using FDA licensed LAL assay kit and FDA approved LAL assay methods to measure the level of endotoxins. Details of endotoxin content are mentioned in the certificate of analysis of the product.


  1. Rietschel, E.T.,Kirikae, T., Schade, F.U., Mamat, U., Schmidt, G., Loppnow, H., Ulmer, A.J., Zähringer, U., Seydel, U., Di Padova, F. Bacterial endotoxin: molecular relationships of structure to activity and function. FASEB J. 1994, Feb;8(2):217-25. PMID: 8119492.
  2. Ohto, U.,Fukase, K., Miyake, K., Shimizu, T. Structural basis of species-specific endotoxin sensing by innate immune receptor TLR4/MD-2. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 2012, May 8;109(19):7421-6. PMID: 22532668.
  3. Kulp, A., Kuehn, M.J. Biological functions and biogenesis of secreted bacterial outer membrane  vesicles. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 2010, 64:163-84. PMID: 20825345.
  4. Hecker, W.,Witthauer, D., Staerk, A. Validation of dry heat inactivation of bacterial endotoxins. PDA J Pharm. Sci. Technol. 1994, Jul-Aug;48(4):197-204. PMID: 7804819.
  5. Nakata, T. Destruction of typical  endotoxins by  dry heat as determined  using LAL assay and pyrogen  assay. J Parenter. Sci. Technol. 1993, Sep-Oct;47(5):258-64. PMID: 8263663.
  6. Gorbet, M.B.,Sefton, M.V. Endotoxin: the uninvited guest.  2005, Dec;26(34):6811-7. PMID: 16019062.
  7. Iwanaga, S. Biochemicalprinciple of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins. Proc Jpn. Acad. Ser B Phys Biol. Sci. 2007, May;83(4):110-9. PMID: 24019589.
  8. Chen J, Anders VI. Low Endotoxin Recovery (LER) in Common Biologics Products. Parenteral Drug Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, April 2013.
  9. US Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: Pyrogen and Endotoxins Testing: Questions and Answers. June 2012.
  10. Bolden, J.S.,Warburton, R.E., Phelan, R., Murphy, M., Smith, K.R., De Felippis, M.R., Chen, D. Endotoxin Recovery Using Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay.  2016, Sep;44(5):434-40. PMID: 27470947.
  11. Karen Z.M. Current USP Perspectives on Low Endotoxin Recovery (LER). Endotoxin detection part IV. A supplement to American Pharmaceutical Review. 2016. Recovery-LER/.
  12. Chen, J., and Vinther, A. Low Endotoxin Recovery (“LER”) in Common Biologics Products. Orlando: Parenteral Drug Association Annual Meeting; 2013.
  13. Karen, Z., Radhakrishna, T., David, H., James, A., Dennis, G., Robert, M., and Donald, S. Endotoxins Standards and Their Role in Recovery Studies: The Path Forward. BioPharma Asia. November/December 2016.
  14. Radhakrishna, S. T. Naturally Occurring Endotoxin: A new reference material proposed by the US Pharmacopeia. American Pharmaceutical Review. Endotoxin supplement 2016.
  15. Burgenson, A.L. Endotoxins from different sources: Variability in reactivity and recoverability. Presented at the Pharmaceutical Microbiology Forum. Bacterial Endotoxins Summit Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. 2014.
  16. Platco, C. Lab Experiences: Low Endotoxin Recovery. Presented at the Pharmaceutical Microbiology Forum. Bacterial Endotoxins Summit Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. 2014.
  17. Williams, K.L. Endotoxin Aggregation & Binding Properties. Recovering Endotoxin Spikes from Products & Container Clousers. Presentation at the Parenteral Drug Association Conference, Berlin, Germany. 2014.
  18. Tim, S. Removal of Endotoxin from Protein in Pharmaceutical Processes. Endotoxin detection part IV. A Supplement to American Pharmaceutical Review. 2016.

Dr. Karen Crawford, President of List Biological Laboratories, Inc.

We will be exhibiting at the 2nd Annual Translational Microbiome Conference at the Hilton Boston Back Bay on April 20-21. We are also proud to be a sponsor of this event.

If you will be in attendance, stop by the List Labs booth and chat with Karen Crawford about your research in the microbiome area. Karen is the president of List Labs and would enjoy speaking with you about our areas of expertise and how we would be able to support your microbiome or live biotherapeutic product work. We love hearing what companies are developing and finding ways to help.

If you want to learn more about our capabilities, check out our website or one of our videos and let us know how we can help you better position yourself to meet your research goals and objectives.

Karen Crawford, Ph.D., President
Eva Purro, Director of Quality Assurance
Dom C. Ouano, Marketing

While most of List Labs’ products are intended as research reagents (Research Grade), several can be produced as GMP products for use in humans. Below are key differences between the two.

Research Only VS Preclinical/Clinical/Human Use

Reagent grade products for research only are labeled “not for human use” but are produced using good laboratory practices. These reagents are readily available on our website and any quantity can be purchased. Products intended for human use are produced under cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practices, see the Code of Federal Regulations 21 CFR 211) and are provided to clients with a customized contract.

reagent vs gmp products

cGMP = Higher Production Standards

Producing compounds under cGMP regulations is a more costly process compared to reagent grade. cGMP compliance includes all aspects of production: documented training programs, QA issued production records, dedicated production suite preparation, testing and release of raw materials, analytical method qualification dedicated supplies, and validated cleaning methods. In addition, a Drug Master File may be submitted to the FDA, which can be cross referenced by our GMP customers.

See more about our cGMP production capabilities.

One example of a product produced as both reagent grade and GMP grade is HPT™ E. coli O113 LPS. Although a chemist may not be able to tell the difference between the reagent grade and the cGMP material, the difference is in the compliance to the GMP’s as described above. Our reagent grade material is produced with good laboratory procedures, however it is not compliant to GMP. Consequently, reagent grade E. coli LPS is not for human use and cGMP LPS may be applied “for human use” per FDA approval. cGMP for human use is not so much a property of the E.coli LPS as it is describing the environment and procedures surrounding the preparation of the compound.

For example….

Our LPS from E. coli O55:B5 or E.coli O113, Products #203, #423 and #433, are reagent grade products and are often used in research, particularly for inducing the maturation of Dendritic Cells.

We also provide cGMP LPS from E.coli O113 on a contract basis, which is made compliant to GMP and is appropriate for FDA approved use in humans.

Learn more about special projects including bulk drug substance & active pharmaceutical ingredient development, we have developed in partnership with our clients or contact us with any further questions or inquiries regarding this or any of our other products and services.