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Ac-SDKP ameliorates the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via inhibition of ER stress and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice

Pejman, S;Kamarehei, M;Riazi, G;Pooyan, S;Balalaie, S;

Despite the attention given to the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), still no certain cure is available. The main purpose of MS drugs is acting against neuroinflammation which underlies the pathology of MS. Neuroinflammation is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that mediates neural apoptosis. In the present study, we hypothesized that the tetrapeptide N-acetyl-ser-asp-lys-pro (Ac-SDKP) with the previously described anti-fibrotic effects might have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-ER stress roles in the hippocampus. We used myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely-accepted animal model of MS, in C57BL/6 mice. The protein levels of ER stress-related molecules including caspase-12, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in the hippocampus were examined by immunoblotting. Hence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of the hippocampus were studied. Moreover, hippocampal morphology changes, leukocytes infiltration, and the levels of IL-6 and IL-1 pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Our results displayed that Ac-SDKP down regulates caspase-12 and CHOP expression in the hippocampus-resident oligodendrocytes of EAE mice. Further, treatment with Ac-SDKP decreased oxidative stress markers and caspase-3 activation in the hippocampus of EAE mice. According to our findings, Ac-SDKP showed beneficial effects against ER stress and oxidative stress in addition to inflammation in the hippocampus of EAE mice. The present study provides the basis for further research on the therapeutic applications of Ac-SDKP to reduce ER stress and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.