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Assessing the In Vivo Effectiveness of Cationic Lipid Nanoparticles with a Triple Adjuvant for Intranasal Vaccination against the Respiratory Pathogen Bordetella pertussis

Aibani, N;Patel, P;Buchanan, R;Strom, S;Wasan, KM;Hancock, REW;Gerdts, V;Wasan, EK;

Continuous outbreaks of pertussis around the world suggest inadequate immune protection in infants and weakened immune responses induced over time by the acellular pertussis vaccine. Vaccine adjuvants provide a means to improve vaccine immunogenicity and support long-term adaptive immunity against pertussis. An acellular pertussis vaccine was prepared with pertactin, pertussis toxin, and fimbriae 2/3 antigens combined with a triple-adjuvant system consisting of innate defense regulator peptide IDR 1002, a Toll-like receptor-3 agonist poly(I:C), and a polyphosphazene in a fixed combination. The vaccine was delivered intranasally in a cationic lipid nanoparticle formulation fabricated by simple admixture and two schema for addition of antigens (LT-A, antigens associated outside of L-TriAdj, and LAT, antigens associated inside of L-TriAdj) to optimize particle size and cationic surface charge. In the former, antigens were associated with the lipidic formulation of the triple adjuvant by electrostatic attraction. In the latter, the antigens resided in the interior of the lipid nanoparticle. Two dose levels of antigens were used with adjuvant comprised of the triple adjuvant with or without the lipid nanoparticle carrier. Formulation of vaccines with the triple adjuvant stimulated systemic and mucosal immune responses. The lipid nanoparticle vaccines favored a Th1 type of response with higher IgG2a and IgA serum antibody titers particularly for pertussis toxin and pertactin formulated at the 5 μg dose level in the admixed formulation. Additionally, the lipid nanoparticle vaccines resulted in high nasal SIgA antibodies and an early (4 weeks post vaccination) response after a single vaccination dose. The LT-A nanoparticles trended toward higher titers of serum antibodies compared to LAT. The cationic lipid-based vaccine nanoparticles formulated with a triple adjuvant showed encouraging results as a potential formulation for intranasally administered pertussis vaccines.