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Dietary Yeasts Reduce Inflammation in Central Nerve System via Microflora

Takata, K;Tomita, T;Okuno, T;Kinoshita, M;Koda, T;Honorat, JA;Takei, M;Hagihara, K;Sugimoto, T;Mochizuki, H;Sakoda, S;Nakatsuji, Y;

The intestinal microflora affects the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases by influencing immune system function. Some bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, have been reported to have beneficial effects on immune function. However, little is known about the effects of yeasts. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of various dietary yeasts contained in fermented foods on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects.,The effects of eight yeasts selected from 18 types of yeasts contained in fermented foods were examined using an EAE model. Of these, Candida kefyr was investigated by analyzing the intestinal microflora and its effects on intestinal and systemic immune states.,Administration of C. kefyr ameliorated the severity of EAE. Reduced numbers of Th17 cells, suppressed interleukin (IL)-6 production by intestinal explants, and increased Tregs and CD103-positive regulatory dendritic cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were observed. Analysis of 16s-rDNA from feces of C. kefyr-treated mice demonstrated increased Lactobacillales and decreased Bacteroides compared to control flora. Transfer of intestinal microbiota also resulted in decreased Bacteroides and ameliorated symptoms of EAE. Thus, oral administration of C. kefyr ameliorated EAE by altering the microflora, accompanied by increased Tregs and CD103-positive regulatory dendritic cells in MLNs and decreased Th17 cells in the intestinal lamina propria.,Oral ingestion of C. kefyr may have beneficial effects on MS by modifying microflora. In addition, our findings also suggested the potential health benefits of dietary yeasts.