The Journal Of Neuroscience : The Official Journal Of The Society For Neuroscience
The ability of stress to trigger cocaine seeking in humans and rodents is variable and is determined by the amount and pattern of prior drug use. This study examined the role of a corticotropin releasing factor- (CRF-) regulated dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the prelimbic cortex in shock-induced cocaine seeking and its recruitment under self-administration conditions that establish relapse vulnerability. Male rats with a history of daily long-access (LgA; 14 x 6 hrs/day) but not short-access (ShA; 14 x 2 hrs/day) self-administration showed robust shock-induced cocaine seeking. This was associated with a heightened shock-induced prelimbic cortex Fos response and activation of cholera toxin b retro-labeled VTA neurons that project to the prelimbic cortex. Chemogenetic inhibition of this pathway using a dual virus intersectional hM4Di DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) based approach prevented shock-induced cocaine seeking. Both shock-induced reinstatement and the prelimbic cortex Fos response were prevented by bilateral intra-VTA injections of the CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) antagonist, antalarmin. Moreover, pharmacological disconnection of the CRF-regulated dopaminergic projection to the prelimbic cortex by injection of antalarmin into the VTA in one hemisphere and the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390, into the prelimbic cortex of the contralateral hemisphere prevented shock-induced cocaine seeking. Finally, LgA, but not ShA, cocaine self-administration resulted in increased VTA CRFR1 mRNA levels as measured using in situ hybridization. Altogether, these findings suggest that excessive cocaine use may establish susceptibility to stress-induced relapse by recruiting CRF regulation of a stressor-responsive mesocortical dopaminergic pathway.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTUnderstanding the neural pathways and mechanisms through which stress triggers relapse to cocaine use is critical for the development of more effective treatment approaches. Prior work has demonstrated a critical role for the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in stress-induced cocaine seeking. Here we provide evidence that stress-induced reinstatement in a rat model of relapse is mediated by a CRF-regulated dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that activates dopamine D1 receptors in the prelimbic cortex. Moreover, we report that this pathway may be recruited as a result of daily cocaine self-administration under conditions of extended drug access/heightened drug intake, likely as a result of increased CRFR1 expression in the VTA, thereby promoting susceptibility to stress-induced cocaine seeking. Copyright 2018 the authors.