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Epigallocatechin-3 gallate regulates macrophage subtypes and immunometabolism to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Cai, F;Liu, S;Lei, Y;Jin, S;Guo, Z;Zhu, D;Guo, X;Zhao, H;Niu, X;Xi, Y;Wang, Z;Chen, G;

Epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG) is a polyphenolic component of tea and has potential curative effects in patients with autoimmune diseases. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). It remains unknown whether EGCG can regulate macrophage subtypes in MS. Here we evaluated the effects of EGCG in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), MS mouse model. We found that EGCG treatment reduced EAE severity and macrophage inflammation in the CNS. Moreover, EAE severity was well correlated with the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages, and EGCG treatment suppressed M1 macrophage-mediated inflammation in spleen. In vitro experiments showed that EGCG inhibited M1 macrophage polarization, but promoted M2 macrophage polarization. These effects were likely to be related to the inhibition of nuclear factor-?B signaling and glycolysis in macrophages by EGCG in macrophages. Overall, these findings provided important insights into the mechanisms through which EGCG may mediate MS.