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Inhibition of cAMP-activated intestinal chloride secretion by diclofenac: cellular mechanism and potential application in cholera

Pongkorpsakol, P;Pathomthongtaweechai, N;Srimanote, P;Soodvilai, S;Chatsudthipong, V;Muanprasat, C;

Cyclic AMP-activated intestinal Cl- secretion plays an important role in pathogenesis of cholera. This study aimed to investigate the effect of diclofenac on cAMP-activated Cl- secretion, its underlying mechanisms, and possible application in the treatment of cholera. Diclofenac inhibited cAMP-activated Cl- secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells with IC50 of 20 M. The effect required no cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated metabolic activation. Interestingly, exposures of T84 cell monolayers to diclofenac, either in apical or basolateral solutions, produced similar degree of inhibitions. Analyses of the apical Cl- current showed that diclofenac reversibly inhibited CFTR Cl- channel activity (IC50 10 M) via mechanisms not involving either changes in intracellular cAMP levels or CFTR channel inactivation by AMP-activated protein kinase and protein phosphatase. Of interest, diclofenac had no effect on Na(+)-K(+) ATPases and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl- cotransporters, but inhibited cAMP-activated basolateral K(+) channels with IC50 of 3 M. In addition, diclofenac suppressed Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels, inwardly rectifying Cl- channels, and Ca(2+)-activated basolateral K(+) channels. Furthermore, diclofenac (up to 200 M; 24 h of treatment) had no effect on cell viability and barrier function in T84 cells. Importantly, cholera toxin (CT)-induced Cl- secretion across T84 cell monolayers was effectively suppressed by diclofenac. Intraperitoneal administration of diclofenac (30 mg/kg) reduced both CT and Vibrio cholerae-induced intestinal fluid secretion by 70% without affecting intestinal fluid absorption in mice. Collectively, our results indicate that diclofenac inhibits both cAMP-activated and Ca(2+)-activated Cl- secretion by inhibiting both apical Cl- channels and basolateral K+ channels in intestinal epithelial cells. Diclofenac may be useful in the treatment of cholera and other types of secretory diarrheas resulting from intestinal hypersecretion of Cl-.