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JAK1 signaling in dendritic cells promotes peripheral tolerance in autoimmunity through PD-L1-mediated regulatory Tcell induction

Vogel, A;Martin, K;Soukup, K;Halfmann, A;Kerndl, M;Brunner, JS;Hofmann, M;Oberbichler, L;Korosec, A;Kuttke, M;Datler, H;Kieler, M;Musiejovsky, L;Dohnal, A;Sharif, O;Schabbauer, G;

Dendritic cells (DCs) induce peripheral T cell tolerance, but cell-intrinsic signaling cascades governing their stable tolerogenesis remain poorly defined. Janus Kinase 1 (JAK1) transduces cytokine-receptor signaling, and JAK inhibitors (Jakinibs), including JAK1-specific filgotinib, break inflammatory cycles in autoimmunity. Here, we report in heterogeneous DC populations of multiple secondary lymphoid organs that JAK1 promotes peripheral T cell tolerance during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mice harboring DC-specific JAK1 deletion exhibit elevated peripheral CD4+ T cell expansion, less regulatory T cells (Tregs), and worse EAE outcomes, whereas adoptive DC transfer ameliorates EAE pathogenesis by inducing peripheral Tregs, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) dependently. This tolerogenic program is substantially reduced upon the transfer of JAK1-deficient DCs. DC-intrinsic IFN-?-JAK1-STAT1 signaling induces PD-L1, which is required for DCs to convert CD4+ T cells into Tregs in vitro and attenuated upon JAK1 deficiency and filgotinib treatment. Thus, DC-intrinsic JAK1 promotes peripheral tolerance, suggesting potential unwarranted DC-mediated effects of Jakinibs in autoimmune diseases.