Successful host colonization by bacteria requires sensing and response to the local ionic milieu, and coordination of responses with the maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the face of changing conditions. We previously discovered that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) responds synergistically to chloride (Cl-) and pH, as cues to the immune status of its host. This raised the intriguing concept of abundant ions as important environmental signals, and we have now uncovered potassium (K+) as an ion that can significantly impact colonization by Mtb. The bacterium has a unique transcriptional response to changes in environmental K+ levels, with both distinct and shared regulatory mechanisms controlling Mtb response to the ionic signals of K+, Cl-, and pH. We demonstrate that intraphagosomal K+ levels increase during macrophage phagosome maturation, and find using a novel fluorescent K+-responsive reporter Mtb strain that K+ is not limiting during macrophage infection. Disruption of Mtb K+ homeostasis by deletion of the Trk K+ uptake system results in dampening of the bacterial response to pH and Cl-, and attenuation in host colonization, both in primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and in vivo in a murine model of Mtb infection. Our study reveals how bacterial ionic homeostasis can impact environmental ionic responses, and highlights the important role that abundant ions can play during host colonization by Mtb.