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The microglial innate immune protein PGLYRP1 mediates neuroinflammation and consequent behavioral changes

Bhusal, A;Kim, JH;Kim, SC;Hwang, EM;Ryu, H;Ali, MS;Park, SC;Lee, WH;Suk, K;

Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) is a pattern-recognition protein that mediates antibacterial actions and innate immune responses. Its expression and role in neuroinflammatory conditions remain unclear. We observed the upregulation of PGLYRP1 in inflamed human and mouse spinal cord and brain, with microglia being the primary cellular source. Experiments using a recombinant PGLYRP1 protein show that PGLYRP1 potentiates reactive gliosis, neuroinflammation, and consequent behavioral changes in multiple animal models of neuroinflammation. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Pglyrp1 gene expression attenuates this inflammatory response. In addition, we identify triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (TREM1) as an interaction partner of PGLYRP1 and demonstrate that PGLYRP1 promotes neuroinflammation through the TREM1-Syk-Erk1/2-Stat3 axis in cultured glial cells. Taken together, our results reveal a role for microglial PGLYRP1 as a neuroinflammation mediator. Finally, we propose that PGLYRP1 is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in various neuroinflammatory diseases.