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The Role of Forced and Voluntary Training on Accumulation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule and Polysialic Acid in Muscle of Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Torabimehr, F;Kordi, MR;Nouri, R;Ai, J;Shirian, S;

It has been suggested that depletion of adhesion molecules is one of the factors associated with or possibly responsible for multiple sclerosis (MS) progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of forced and voluntary training before and after induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) on accumulation of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and polysialic acid (PSA) in neuromuscular junction denervation in plantaris and soleus muscles in C57BL/6 female mice. A total of 40 female C57BL/6 mice, 10-week-old, were randomly divided into four groups, including induced control groups without EAE induction, induced EAE without training, and forced and voluntary training groups. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 (300g in saline; MOG 35-55; KJ Ross-Petersen ApS, Denmark) was injected subcutaneously at the base of the tail of each mouse. Clinical assessment of EAE was performed daily using a 15-point scoring system following immunization. Training groups performed the swimming program for 30min/day, 5 times/week, for 4 weeks. Mice had access to a treadmill for one hour per day, 5times/week, for 4 weeks in individual cage. The mice were scarified, and the plantaris and soleus muscles were then isolated for investigation of proteins expression using IHC. An analysis of the preventive exercise (before) and recovery exercise (after) of the EAE was performed. Images of the stained sections were taken using a fluorescent microscope. Quantitative image analysis was performed using ImageJ software package. The obtained data from the mean percentage expression of PSA and NCAM in pre- and post-soleus and plantaris muscles showed that the highest and lowest expression levels of PSA and NCAM belonged to control and swim EAE (SE) groups, respectively. The low expression levels of PSA and NCAM were detected in rat with MS without intervention. In conclusion, the relationship between increasing levels of NCAM and PSA protein expression and voluntary and compulsory activity were detectable both in pre and post-soleus and plantaris. However, voluntary activity resulted in more expression levels of NCAM and PSA than that of compulsory. In conclusion, since it has been suggested that depletion of NCAM is one of the factors associated with or possibly responsible for MS progression, these findings show exercise MS progression may be reduced by increasing expression of exercise-related adhesion molecule such as NCAM and PSA (a glycan modification of the NCAM). Copyright 2020 Farzaneh Torabimehr et al.