Bordetella Pertussis uses Adenylate Cyclase Toxin-Hemolysin to fight off immune cells
September 30, 2014
Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (ACT, AC-Hly, or CyaA) is an important virulence factor for Bordetella pertussis. Adenylate cyclase toxin is a large (178 kDa), 1,706-residue-long, toxin consisting of an amino-terminal adenylate cyclase (AC) domain of 400 residues and a repeat toxin (RTX) moiety of 1,306 residues. Sequences within the RTX domain are responsible for target binding, pore-formation and calcium binding. Also located within this domain are two lysine residues which undergo posttranslational modified by acylation (1).
Adenylate cyclase toxin targets sentinel cells of the host’s innate immune defense. It penetrates a variety of immune cells and, when activated by calmodulin, catalyzes conversion of cellular ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP), interfering with cell signaling and with the anti-bacterial activity of phagocytes. ACT acts on phagocytes limiting the phagocytes ability to produce oxidative burst and kill bacterial through complement or antibodies (2, 3). The entire AC-Hly protein is necessary for adenylate cyclase delivery into cells (4).
In the intoxication process, the Hly portion of the toxin binds to CR3 receptor on target cells (CD11b+) and allows translocation of the AC enzyme into the cell. Within the target cell, adenylate cyclase rapidly produces extremely high levels of cAMP, disabling the immune cell (5, 6). At a lower efficiency, adenylate cyclase-hemolysin can penetrate cells lacking the CR3 receptor and create cAMP (7). In addition to binding target cells, CyaA is able to form small cation-selective pores in cytoplasm membranes, causing hemolysis in erythrocytes (8).
A non-enzymatic, genetically detoxified CyaA-AC– toxoid has been produced (9). Although the catalytic activity in this AC toxoid is destroyed, it is still cell invasive and able to induce an immune response to co-administered pertussis antigens (10, 11, 12). This toxoid has been shown to be capable of delivering vaccine antigens into the cytosol of major Histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen-presenting cells (13).CyaA-AC– toxoid has been used as a tool to deliver antigens to T cells in anti-cancer immunotherapeutic vaccines. (9, 14, 15)
List Labs provides several variations of the B. pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin. Most recently we have prepared a new formulation of the lyophilized Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Product #188. This product may be obtained, upon request, as a liquid (Product #188L). Additionally we have samples available of the Genetically Detoxified CyaA-AC Toxoid, request Product #188X, and samples of an especially low endotoxin preparation of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Product #188U. Finally, you will find in our product offering Product #189, Adenylate Cyclase Antigen, Native from Bordetella pertussis.
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