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Anti-Glycolipid Antibody Examination in Five EAE Models and Theiler’s Virus Model of Multiple Sclerosis: Detection of Anti-GM1, GM3, GM4, and Sulfatide Antibodies in Relapsing-Remitting EAE

Moriguchi, K;Nakamura, Y;Park, AM;Sato, F;Kuwahara, M;Khadka, S;Omura, S;Ahmad, I;Kusunoki, S;Tsunoda, I;

Anti-glycolipid antibodies have been reported to play pathogenic roles in peripheral inflammatory neuropathies, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. On the other hand, the role in multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory demyelinating disease in the central nervous system (CNS), is largely unknown, although the presence of anti-glycolipid antibodies was reported to differ among MS patients with relapsing-remitting (RR), primary progressive (PP), and secondary progressive (SP) disease courses. We investigated whether the induction of anti-glycolipid antibodies could differ among experimental MS models with distinct clinical courses, depending on induction methods. Using three mouse strains, SJL/J, C57BL/6, and A.SW mice, we induced five distinct experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55, MOG92-106, or myelin proteolipid protein (PLP)139-151, with or without an additional adjuvant curdlan injection. We also induced a viral model of MS, using Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). Each MS model had an RR, SP, PP, hyperacute, or chronic clinical course. Using the sera from the MS models, we quantified antibodies against 11 glycolipids: GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD3, galactocerebroside, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, GQ1b, and sulfatide. Among the MS models, we detected significant increases in four anti-glycolipid antibodies, GM1, GM3, GM4, and sulfatide, in PLP139-151-induced EAE with an RR disease course. We also tested cellular immune responses to the glycolipids and found CD1d-independent lymphoproliferative responses only to sulfatide with decreased interleukin (IL)-10 production. Although these results implied that anti-glycolipid antibodies might play a role in remissions or relapses in RR-EAE, their functional roles need to be determined by mechanistic experiments, such as injections of monoclonal anti-glycolipid antibodies.