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Wee, JH;Ko, YK;Khalmuratova, R;Shin, HW;Kim, DW;Rhee, CS;
Several factors, including bacterial and viral infections, have been associated with rhinosinusitis and nasal tissue remodelling that may result in nasal polyp formation. However, the potential role of bacterial or viral stimuli triggering polyp development is unclear. Here, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] in a murine model of allergic rhinosinusitis to compare different effects of bacterial- and virus-derived stimuli in the pathogenesis of nasal polyp formation. Briefly, BALB/c mice were sensitised and challenged with ovalbumin and staphylococcal enterotoxin, with or without LPS or poly(I:C), and the consequent histopathological profiles, cytokines, and systemic humoral responses were studied. While no significant differences in polyp formations and epithelial disruptions were observed among the experimental groups, the local cell recruitment patterns slightly differed in animals that received either LPS or poly(I:C). Additionally, the local immune environments generated by LPS or poly(I:C) stimulation varied. LPS stimulation induced a marked Th1/Th17 response and predominantly neutrophilic nasal polyp formations, whereas poly(I:C) induced a Th2-skewed environment in neutrophilic nasal polyp development. Overall, our findings show that both cell recruitment patterns and local immune environments induced by these two stimuli differ, which may have implications in the physiopathology of rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp.