To promote infections, pathogens exploit host cell machineries such as structural elements of the plasma membrane. Studying these interactions and identifying molecular players are ideal for gaining insights into the fundamental biology of the host cell. Here, we used the anthrax toxin to screen a library of 1,500 regulatory, cell-surface, and membrane trafficking genes for their involvement in the intoxication process. We found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi-localized proteins TMED2 and TMED10 are required for toxin oligomerization at the plasma membrane of human cells, an essential step dependent on localization to cholesterol-rich lipid nanodomains. Biochemical, morphological, and mechanistic analyses showed that TMED2 and TMED10 are essential components of a supercomplex that operates the exchange of both cholesterol and ceramides at ER-Golgi membrane contact sites. Overall, this study of anthrax intoxication led to the discovery that lipid compositional remodeling at ER-Golgi interfaces fully controls the formation of functional membrane nanodomains at the cell surface.