List Labs provides endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) for research and clinical investigation. This material has been extracted from bacterial cell walls of different strains of E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella minnesota. Several of the endotoxins have been further purified to remove traces of residual protein and nucleic acids, producing either the Ultra Pure or HPTTM. Contact us for more information about E. coli O113, extracted at high purity and under GMP conditions for use in clinical trials: GMP ListTM HPTTM LPS.
LPS structure may be generally described as three linked regions. The first structural feature is the lipid component called Lipid A, primarily responsible for the effects of endotoxin. Linked to Lipid A is the core antigen or R polysaccharide, a short chain of sugars including 2-keto 3-deoxyoctonate (KDO). The third structural feature is attached to the core polysaccharide and is more elaborate, containing up to 40 repeating subunits of 3 to 5 sugars, referred to as the O antigen, O side chain or O polysaccharide. Variations in the composition of the O antigen account for different antibody responses to bacteria species. Lipid A, acting alone or as a component of LPS, is a potent modulator of the mammalian immune response. The presence of Lipid A or LPS in mammalian macrophages or endothelial cells triggers a signaling cascade leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide. LPS also acts as a B cell mitogen.
To follow is a list of LPS available for purchase, sorted by the bacteria stains from which it was derived. Find also on this list, monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA) prepared from Salmonella minnesota R595 (Re). All LPS sold by List Labs has been made in the USA.
List Labs currently has a GMP compliant version of HPT™ Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O113 in stock. What this means for you: You don’t need to buy an entire batch of lipopolysaccharide or wait months for production and release – Saves you valuable time Paying for as few as 50 vials of a proven product and purchasing […]
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By: Md. Elias, Ph.D, Senior Scientist What are Endotoxins? Endotoxins (aka lipopolysaccharide, LPS or lipoglycan) are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria consisting of a lipid moiety and a polysaccharide moiety, the latter is composed of an inner core, outer core and O-antigen joined by covalent bonds1. In animals the lipid part of […]
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What is Lipopolysaccharide? Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a potent stimulator of the vertebrate innate immune system. This innate immune system, mediated by macrophages and dendritic cells, generates a rapid response to infectious agents. Structural patterns common to diverse LPS molecules are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and […]